According to Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1988), perceived service
quality is a form of attitude and a comparison of expectations with perceptions of
performance. It is referred to the judgment of consumer on an entity‟s excellence or
Model of Service Quality
Service quality can be measured using three different perspectives. The three
models are developed by Grönroos (1982), Lehtinen and Lehtinen (1982), followed
by Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1985, 1988, 1991).
Functional quality and technical quality model
Grönroos (1982) categorised service dimensions into functional quality and
technical quality but it is difficult to distinguish between technical quality (i.e. service
product, primarily determined by technical procedures) and the competitors in service
industry Grönroos (1984).
For functional quality, it is refer to how the service is delivered and which the
researcher defined it as the perceptions of customer about the interactions while
service is delivering. This refers to the concern on both psychological and behavioral
aspects (i.e. accessibility to the provider, how employees perform their task, what
they say and how the service is done)
However, technical quality is the outcome of the interaction between what
consumers get and the service provider, which is equivalent to core quality (product
or service- related offerings) (McDougall & Levesque, 1994).
Three- dimensional view of service quality
Lehtinen and Lehtinen (1982) stated service quality has three-dimensional
view which is in terms of “physical”, “interaction” and “corporate” quality.
For physical quality, it is defined as the quality derived from the physical
elements (i.e. foods and drinks) of the service which is relates to the tangible aspects
of the service. Interaction quality refers to the customer contact with the service
personnel and other customers. Corporate quality is defined as the attribution of an
image to a service provider by its current, potential customers and publics. It is also
considered as a symbolic in nature and involving the perceptions of customers
towards the corporate entity (Lehtinen & Lehtinen, 1991).
According to Parasuraman, Berry and Zeithaml (1991), the researchers
indicated that there are five dimensions (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness,
assurance and empathy) to determine the quality of service.
Firstly, tangible is referred to the outward physical trapping of the service
provider, facilities and communication materials used (Parasuraman et al., 1991 (a),
(b), 1985; Zeithaml, Berry & Parasuraman, 1988). Examples like the appealing store
appearance; well-dressed, neat employees and appealing promotional materials
Secondly, reliability is the ability of the service provider and/or firm to
consistently deliver the service as promised (Parasuraman et al., 1991a, b, 1985;
Zeithaml et al., 1988) such as error-free records, reliable service performance and
reliability in transactions. If performed well, they assured the customer and increased
confidence towards the store.
Thirdly, responsiveness is the readiness of the service provider or firm to
service and help customers promptly (Parasuraman et al., 1991a, b, 1985; Zeithaml et
Fourthly, assurance is the competency of the employee or firm that inspires
trust and confidence in the service provider or firm (Parasuraman et al., 1991a, b,
1985; Zeithaml et al., 1988). In addition, it is knowledgeable and skilful in
performing the service may increase job efficiency.
Lastly, empathy is the caring, individualized attention provided to customers
(Parasuraman et al., 1991a, b, 1985; Zeithaml et al., 1988).
For the purpose of this study, we have adopted SERVQUAL model by
Parasuraman, et al. (1991) to identify and measure service quality.